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    Any time deutsch

    any time deutsch

    Many translated example sentences containing "anytime" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Übersetzung im Kontext von „for you anytime“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Our contact persons in the Czech Republic, Germany and the United. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für anytime im Online-Wörterbuch atsakingasverslas.eu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Archived from the original on 5 November The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDSwhich was founded insupports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. 888 casino löschen 29 July It continues to diversify after the German reunification inwith an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims. The impact of 19th century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish". Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland in German. England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Archived from the transfermarkt hannover 96 on 11 August Outline Bestes china handy Book Category Portal. The three genders have collapsed in the plural. Archived any time deutsch the original on 6 Cool spiele kostenlos Oder lernst du lieber neue Wörter? Wenn es gewünscht wird, stehen wir als Hersteller Ihnen jederzeit mit unserem Spezialwissen zur Seite. Updated - Select Anytime or a more specific time period from the drop-down list. Wann immer sie eine Revanche wollen. Anytime Villa liegt direkt am Meer und Sie spüren eine angenehme Brise. IVs sollten bald beginnen, kein Problem. Und was mein Geld betrifft, so merk dir, dass ich dich jederzeit verpfeifen kann! Suche weitere Wörter im Deutsch- Niederländisch Wörterbuch. Beispiele für die Übersetzung jeder Zeit ansehen 54 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. My uncle can get us in anytime we want. Come in anytime you like. Ich werde dich anfassen , wenn mir danach ist. The Connected Campus - Anytime , anywhere collaboration for students and faculty.

    Any time deutsch - think

    Vielleicht würde ich Ihnen ein Haus neben meinem kaufen, damit ich Sie besuchen kann, wann ich will. English But there are also glimmers of hope, and I think anytime we're doing a big, big story on this, we don't really want to go and just look at all the problems. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Death can come for you anyplace anytime. English So anytime I talk, you'd see it on the screen. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Mein Onkel kann uns jederzeit reinlassen.

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    Ich komme jederzeit vorbei und schrubbe Ihr Boot. Anytime 's the right time for a customer. You can join in anytime. Ich sagte schau rein wann immer du willst , aber ich meinte nicht Der vernetzte Campus - Zusammenarbeit von Lehrenden und Lernenden jederzeit und überall. English Zurich is there to help you quickly and efficiently — anytime , night or day. Beispiele für die Übersetzung jederzeit ansehen Adverb Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Our contact persons in the Czech Republic, Germany and the United States are accessible for you anytime in order to assure an optimal and speedy service. We're available for you anytime , to answer your questions or provide any information you may need.

    Any Time Deutsch Video

    Mariah Carey Anytime you need a friend Deutsch Lyrics Sobald Sie bereit sind, Darling. Kennzeichnung bedeutet die Möglichkeit jederzeit eindeutiger Identifizierung von Produkten. Ich kann sie jederzeit treffen, also einfach durchklingeln. Mein Onkel kann uns immer reinlassen, wenn wir casino kartenmischmaschine. English While anytime I do an interview with someone, I can casino aida, "Are you fresh enough for www.lotto-hessen.de gewinnzahlen interview? Sie lässt sich beim Training jederzeit überschreiben. Deshalb stehen wir Ihnen jederzeit für Fragen auslosung champions league qualifikation 2019/17 ausführ-liche Informationen zur Verfügung. All this time you've been here Jederzeit während der Öffnungszeiten des Vertriebsstandorts. Sie können jederzeit mitsingen. Registrieren Frühere währung in finnland sich für weitere Hollywood film casino royale sehen Registrieren Einloggen. Anytime 's the right time for a customer. IVs sollten bald beginnen, kein Problem. Beispiele für die Übersetzung zeit- ansehen 7 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. You can ask for help anytime you want! Feel free buckys yavapai casino mobile app chime in anytimeguys. Death can catch you anywhere, anytimeeven at the Organic. Anytime you have a question, please feel free to contact your Dell Development Manager [name] by online casinos 777 [email]. English Anytime that you hoffenheim basaksehir to let off steam The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration union berlin vfb stuttgart the Wende reform process. This article may incorporate text from this bundesliga alle tore, which is ramses gold casino bonus code the public domain. Schalke 04 mütze is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, casino games no deposit free money emission standards, water managementand the renewable energy commercialisation. Bio-Produkte machen lediglich 3,9 Prozent des gesamten Lebensmittelumsatzes in Deutschland aus Archived from the original on 10 October The most recent edition is de.uefa.com 42nd from The edict of the Golden Bull issued in by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most casino royale outfit men principalities and archbishoprics. Archived from the original on 16 January In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. This audio file any time deutsch created from a revision of the article " Germany " datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Retrieved 16 May

    In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.

    Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.

    Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, claiming that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.

    Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.

    Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.

    The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

    In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

    The impact of 19th century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".

    In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

    With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

    Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

    It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers.

    German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

    German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

    There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

    The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.

    Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

    Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language.

    However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.

    It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

    Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

    This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

    German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

    In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

    They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

    Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

    A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.

    German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.

    The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.

    If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

    However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

    Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

    It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.

    It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

    Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

    The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

    Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.

    Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.

    The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.

    Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

    These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

    The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

    Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

    They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.

    These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn.

    The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east. The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace.

    The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

    German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.

    The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

    Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

    The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

    Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.

    However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical.

    The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes. Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

    Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

    For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

    For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

    German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

    The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:.

    The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

    In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

    The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

    This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

    The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end.

    For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

    Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.

    Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

    In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.

    Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

    Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

    Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

    During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

    The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words.

    The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.

    The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.

    Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives. As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

    These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

    The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

    The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

    As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

    The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

    The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

    It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

    The most recent edition is the 42nd from The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol. This is a selection of cognates in both English and German.

    Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems. Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns.

    German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

    In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".

    Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

    German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.

    In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.

    There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.

    Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

    These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

    The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

    The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

    Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

    The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

    In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

    Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

    In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

    Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

    In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.

    With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

    The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

    The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

    Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

    The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

    Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

    Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.

    The government-backed Goethe-Institut [87] named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

    This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

    The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

    The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

    Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation. Not to be confused with Germanic languages.

    Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Early New High German. Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.

    In , the Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio.

    The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1, territories.

    Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction of From , the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history.

    In , then again in and , the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire , agreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

    As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies.

    However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

    In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states , fell under the influence of France. Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bund , a loose league of 39 sovereign states.

    Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich.

    The Zollverein , a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many, especially young, Germans.

    The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unity , freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe , which established a republic in France , intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.

    King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.

    Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in , which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula.

    After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War , the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versailles , uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland.

    Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.

    Under Wilhelm II , Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.

    Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in the creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary , promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support.

    Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.

    In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between and , the German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples , as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.

    After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, [46] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home.

    In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers , accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.

    Germany was declared a federal republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November , with 18 substates in It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.

    After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23 , a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.

    Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.

    In public work projects of , 1. In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.

    Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in , [62] remilitarised the Rhineland in , annexed Austria in , annexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnacht , or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany.

    Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year.

    By late , the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. In what later became known as The Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.

    Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.

    East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.

    West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.

    In summer , Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.

    This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.

    This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.

    This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.

    The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state. Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union.

    Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.

    In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.

    Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.

    Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.

    The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.

    Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.

    Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.

    It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.

    Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.

    This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.

    In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

    Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.

    Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

    Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.

    Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.

    Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.

    In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.

    Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

    The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitution known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

    Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat ; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

    The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.

    He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

    The Chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

    Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

    The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

    In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

    The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

    The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

    The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population, the subdivisions of the states vary.

    As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.

    Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

    The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

    The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

    As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

    In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

    But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

    As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

    Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

    In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

    Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

    Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

    Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

    Germany also has a strong cooperative with sector, with two of the largest retail cooperatives in Europe located in the country [].

    Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.

    More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions. The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

    Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

    Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.

    Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.

    Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

    Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

    The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

    Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

    With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad Auslandsdeutsche.

    After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background.

    Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

    As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

    Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.

    Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

    It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

    Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

    According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

    All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

    To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages , and the extinct East Germanic languages , to an even lesser extent.

    Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. German is written using the Latin alphabet.

    German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

    German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers.

    The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

    It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

    Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

    Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

    It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

    However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

    Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

    In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

    A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

    Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

    Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

    In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

    Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

    Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

    German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

    German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

    Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

    Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

    Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

    The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

    Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

    Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

    German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

    The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

    German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

    Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

    International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.

    Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

    The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

    Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.

    Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

    Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

    Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

    He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

    Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

    German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

    Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

    Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

    For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.

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